Thursday, May 21, 2020

Social Problems Continuity And Change - 944 Words

In the book â€Å"Social Problems: Continuity and Change†, I studied the chapter Schools and Education. This chapter is very informative on the different social problems that are occurring within schools and education in the United States. The chapter begins with the definition of education, briefly explaining how it is a social establishment that teaches people skills, knowledge, norms, and values that will be beneficial in today society. There are two different types of education. They are formal education and informal education. Teachers, through professional training, often teach formal education to students whereas informal education can occur anywhere, mainly in homes by parents or guardians. The education in the United States today has main focuses, such as educational attainment, which is how far a student can get in school depending on family income and race/ethnicity. Family’s race and income can affect the possibility of someone’s attendance in college. The rate for dropouts in schools is highest for Latinos and Native Americans and lowest for Whites and Asians. As for income, families with high income are more likely to attend college than families with low income. Gender also effects educational attainment. There is a gender difference today that females are more likely than males to graduate high school, and finish college and obtaining a degree. The UnitedStates is considered a credential society, which indicates if a person has the knowledge, degree or skillShow MoreRelatedThe Reforms Of Gaius Marius And The Aftereffects Of The Late Republic Period And Beyond Essay1682 Words   |  7 PagesThe first century BC brought about a number of important changes for the Roman army. Most notably, the reforms of Gaius Marius and the aftereffects of both the Social and Civil Wars altered the Roman army as a whole. Bringing about both continuity and change, these events would help to shape the nature, composition and character of the army of the Late Republic period and beyond. Change came in the form of reforms brought about by Marius; the changing of the conscription of soldiers into the RomanRead MoreContinuity Of Care For Different Multi Disciplinary Teams Essay1667 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Continuity of care is a concern especially with respect to quality of healthcare. Ideally, the concept of continuity of care can be perceived from the point of view of patients and providers. It is mainly related to the satisfaction of patients with both facets of interpersonal and coordination of care. Traditionally, continuity of health care is perceived as the endless relationship between the patients and identified health care providers. However, continuity of care cannot beRead MoreMidwifery Continutity of Care Essay1017 Words   |  5 PagesThe Australian College of Midwives believes that it is the right of every pregnant woman to have access to continuity of care by a known midwife for her pregnancy, labour and early postnatal period. Midwives are the most appropriate primary care providers for healthy mothers and newborn babies and are able to refer to specialist medical care if the need arises (Hicks, Spurgeon Barwell, 2003). Midwives must work within the co mpetency standards enforced by The ANMC Australian Nursing MidwiferyRead MoreChanges And Continuity Of Contemporary Bolivia1498 Words   |  6 PagesChange and Continuity in Contemporary Bolivia Diversity of Capitalism and Economy, Emergence of Plurinational Self-Government, Patterns of Cultural Change and Continuity, and Consensual Community Organization The events that took place before and after Western involvement have led to modern-day Bolivia and help explain the implications for how Bolivia has changed and stayed the same under the Morales administration, which implemented the new constitution in 2009. After the constitution was ratifiedRead MoreEssay about Change and Continuity in the Guilded Age1194 Words   |  5 Pages Change and Continuity in the Gilded Age Emergence of Modern America nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; â€Å"Every day things change, but basically they stay the same.†-Dave Matthews Change and continuity are two major principles of life. They can easily be applied to history because their application accurately portrays the circumstances, and characterizes the era of interest. Merriam-Webster defines continuity as an uninterrupted connection, succession, or union, or an uninterruptedRead MoreMothers And Their Newborn Babies Care After Discharge : A Review Of Supporting Maternal Transition : Continuity, Coaching1196 Words   |  5 PagesMaternal Transition: Continuity, Coaching, and Control Paulette Dongmo Nanfack Kennesaw State University Overview The postpartum period represents a significant transition in women s lives. This critical period of adjustment is characterized by many physical, emotional, and psychological changes that influence women s experiences, adaptation, health, and wellness. Most stressors in the puerperal period include: the transition to motherhood and associated role change and role stress;Read MoreDescribe and critique Moffitt1801 Words   |  6 Pagesconclusion as to whether Moffitt s developmental taxonomy theory is useful in attempting to explain the developmental processes that lead to the identifiable shape of the age crime curve. Moffitt (1993) argued that offending is marked by either continuity or change as the age-group curve is unreliable (Eker and Mus, 2011). This is because the leap in offending during the teenage years conceals two qualitatively distinct categories of individuals (Caspi and Moffitt, 1995). Moffitt named the two distinctRead MoreObservational Ratings Of Therapist Interventions1268 Words   |  6 Pagesown memory in order to help them gather retrospective estimates; Child Behavior Checklist (CBC) and Youth Self-Report Externalizing and Internalizing dimensions, which is a widely used parent-report measure that assesses children’s behavioral problems and social competencies; the CBCL contains groupings of Externalizing (delinquent and aggressive) and Internalizing (withdrawn, anxious/depressed, somatic complaints) symptoms.† Lastly, the Family Environment Cohesion and Conflict subscales which is aRead MoreThe Theory Of Self And Memory1598 Words   |  7 Pagesremain, a majo r area of debate and discussion amongst philosophers, both in Western and Eastern branches of academia. Indeed, this idea that personal identity- more commonly referred to as â€Å"the self†- remains constant, despite any and all qualitative changes that can occur to a person, has left many philosophers ever so puzzled. Nevertheless, four main theories have been developed in an effort to best explain both the existence of the self and how it can persist through any period of time. Some followRead MoreContingency Planning For Major Disruptions1021 Words   |  5 Pagescontingency planning as a layer of a three-line defense termed the three Cs (3Cs) of business continuity: contingency planning, continuity capability, crisis response. Contingency planning is a provision for an event that is possible but cannot be predicted with certainty. He also considers the application of the 3Cs in the entertainment industry and banking, highlighting the need for the business continuity pro fessional support within the organization. Nejad, Noroomand and Kuzgunkaya (2014) discuss

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Key Elements of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young...

The Key Elements of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man James Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man provides an introspective exploration of an Irish Catholic upbringing. To provide the reader with a proper interpretation, Joyce permeates the story with vivid imagery and a variety of linguistic devices. This paper will provide an in-depth of analysis of the work by examining its key elements. The central theme of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is Stephen Dedalus alienation and separation from his trinity of family, country and religion. Stephens separation from his family is evident when he literally flees from his father by walking rapidly lest his fathers shrill whistle might call him back.†¦show more content†¦Does a tiny particle of consecrated bread contain all the body and blood of Jesus Christ or a part only of the body and blood?... Further alienation is added when Stephen is unfairly punished by Father Dolan for accidentally breaking his glasses. An indirect reference to Stephens difference with his Catholic beliefs is found in his admiration of the poet Byron, who his companions consider a heretic. Also, Mr. Tate, the English master, criticizes Stephen for having heresy in his essay. As an artist, Stephen views the world objectively and questions established church doctrines. Several subsidiary themes exist to assist in explaining the character and maturation of Stephen Dedalus. Two of these themes are Stephens weakness and the lack of a true father for him. When compared with regular children, Stephens artistic aptness is contrasted with his physical ineptitude. When playing football, he describes himself as small and weak amid [the others], and his eyes were weak and weary. Later while discussing politics among his family, he again feels small and weak. During Stephens childhood he is consistently deficient of a stern and just fatherly figure. At home his father never gives him valuable advice, except for the prosaic warning never to tattle on friends. Stephen also feels betrayed when he overhears his father talking in jest about his triumph over FatherShow MoreRelatedImagery Pattern of Clouds in the Portrait of an Artist by James Joyce 941 Words   |  4 Pages The Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce is widely recognized by New Critics as one of the greatest novels of its age for its aesthetic artistry. In the Portrait, a powerful autobiographical novel of bildungsroman, commonly known as a coming-of-age story, that follows the life of Irish protagonist Stephen Dedalus, Joyce portraits his momentous transition to adulthood as a passage of psychological struggle towards his ultimate philosophical awakening and his spiritual rebirth as anRead MoreA Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man1594 Words   |  7 Pagesthis essay is to discuss how James Joyce’s seminal novel A Portrait of the Artist as a young man, is experimental with regards to plot, point of view, language, symbolism, style and character development, and will begin with a brief introduction. Many artists, be they of the pen, brush or instrument, seek through innovation an artistic immortality that has the potential to act as a blueprint from which imitation is spawned. Joyce’s Portrait is at its core innovative pioneering prose, and it can beRead MoreLouis XIV, The Sun God1530 Words   |  6 Pagesalso helped establish the French language in becoming the most widely used language in many subjects such as science and literature. The Sun God was known to be a very popular arts enthusiast and under his patronage, he commissioned and funded many artists whose works went on to become very famous and influential. One example includes his commissioning of the legendary Palace of Versailles located in Paris. Due to the cont ributions made by Louis XIV, people in the 17th century viewed France as the sameRead MoreThe Role of Women in Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Essay2493 Words   |  10 PagesJames Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man presents an account of the formative years of aspiring author Stephen Dedalus. The very title of the novel suggests that Joyces focus throughout will be those aspects of the young mans life that are key to his artistic development (Drew 276). Each event in Stephens life -- from the opening story of the moocow to his experiences with religion and the university -- contributes to his growth as an artist. Central to the experiences of StephensRead MoreArtists Most Closely Associated with Snyder County, PA1737 Words   |  7 Pages The artists that are today most closely associated with Snyder County are: The Reverend George Geistweite, Henry Young, and Francis Portzline. There are others like Frederick Kuster, Johann Conrad Trevits, Daniel Diefenbach, a nd Daniel Otto who probably never lived or worked within the geographical confines of what is today Snyder County, but were close enough to produce work for local families and influenced and were influenced by the works of others within this region. Also, some important artistsRead MoreAnalysis Of Kehinde Wiley s Large Scale, Brightly Colored2992 Words   |  12 Pagesbrightly colored, highly patterned portraits of African American subjects are a salute to traditional portraiture as well as a critique of the art historical focus on the privileged male Caucasian. The artist scouts out ordinary black men of ages 18 to 25 from urban settings to copy poses from works by master Western painters like Titian and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. The photographs of their poses become Wiley’s references for his enormous, dazzlingly vibrant portraits. The extreme realism of theRead MoreEssay on Fernando Botero1547 Words   |  7 Pageshe is often seen less as an artist and more as a popular cult figure. In his native Medellà ­n he is mobbed by people wanting to see him, touch him or have him sign his name to whatever substance they happen to be carrying. On the other hand, Boteros work has been discredited by those theorists of modern art whose tastes are dictated more by intellectual fashion than by the perception of the power of his images. Botero is undoubtedly one of the most successful artists in both commercial and popularRead MoreEssay about Artistic comparison1419 Words   |  6 PagesWhile its apparent that artists of the modern age owe much to the artists in the Renaissance, there are many differences between the two. There are some similarities however much of what the artist is expressing, and how they present their concepts are entirely different. Renaissance art appears to be more of a historic record, and heavily influenced by reason and mathematics. Modern art on the other hand tends to convey ideas, and emotions, leaving interpretation to the viewer, instead of beingRead More Essay on the Soul of the Artist in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man2954 Words   |  12 PagesSoul of the Artist in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As James Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man unfolds, protagonist Stephen Dedalus personal vision grows closer and closer to that of an artist. Stephen attempts throughout the story to understand the inspiration he receives while being tormented by influences that seem to distract him. Stephens thoughtful approach to his experiences, brings him through his tormented youth to a refined understanding ofRead MoreThe Gothic Elements in the Picture of Dorian Gray4109 Words   |  17 Pagespurposes of the gothic elements in The Picture of Dorian Gray, this essay takes a close look at the three most prevailing gothic elements in the novel: the portrait, decadence, and the gothic villain by first exploring their presence and development throughout, and then examining their contributions to the characters, the plot development and the themes. First of all, the unique properties and symbolic meanings of the portrait in this novel are discussed. The purpose of the portrait is then analyzed in

U.S. Bank Remitance Program Case Essay Free Essays

U. S. Citizen: Bank Remittance Program I believe it is ethical for U. We will write a custom essay sample on U.S. Bank Remitance Program Case Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now S. Citizen Bank to continue their remittance program and to continue to allow the matricula consular card as a proper form of identification. My argument will be that it is more ethical for U. S. bank to offer business to immigrants, even if they are illegal immigrants, but I believe that the argument that the matricula card is a valid source of identification is false. The matricula consular card is a source of identification that is issued by the Mexican government to help them keep better track of their citizens who are abroad, mostly for tax purposes. A Mexican citizen can only obtain this card if they provided an original birth certificate, photo identification and proof of residency within the United States, such as a utility bill. In 2001 Wells Fargo began accepting matricula cards as a proper form of identification along with U. S. Bank a month later. It was not long thereafter where U. S. Citizen Bank joined in with heavy marketing to draw in to the untapped marked of the increasing population of Hispanics in the United States. With the acceptance of these cards the banks were now allowed to offer remittance services to Mexican immigrants where they could send money back to an account in Mexico, which is an issue I will be discussing later. In 2002, thirteen states accepted the matricula as a valid form of identification, including 800 sheriff offices. In my perspective, the idea that not only banks but many states and hundreds of sheriff offices accept a Mexican issued form of identification which proves valid U. S. citizenship just by representation of a utility bill is absolutely ludicrous. In my opinion there is no way that any entity or governmental agency actually thinks that a utility bill presented to a consular office of the Mexican government can prove that you are a United States citizen. If you are a United States Citizen you should have some other source of legal identification on you that is issued by the United States. This proves that banks, states and sheriff offices all know that there are some people who possess this card that are not legal residents of the United States. This shows that with the matricula card being deemed a valid form of identification by banks, it is going to be easier for illegal immigrants who possess the card to get banking services. This leads to the ethical question of is it ethical for banks to knowingly offer banking services to potential illegal immigrants possessing the matricula card? To this question I answer, yes. As questioned in the case, I believe that it U. S. Citizen’s corporate duty to obey the laws of the United States and support the values of our country. This leads to many people arguing that they these banks are going against what the United States wants in keeping illegal immigrants out of our country. It is proven that the United States government spends millions of dollars each year on border patrol to keep illegal immigrants out of our country. However, once the illegal immigrants get into our country the United States government seems to take a completely different stance and their view almost seems to switch to the complete other side. Once the illegal immigrants hop the border it almost seems like the government is more worried about helping them. We have states accepting illegitimate forms of identification as being valid and in October of 2001, the U. S. PATRIOT act instructed the Secretary of the U. S. Treasury to provide regulations for certain customer identification that banks needed to obtain before they could open an account and they never did. We also have the chairman of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, who was also a former regulator, commenting on the matricula, saying that the banks are doing â€Å"good business† and he mentioned that accepting it as valid identification was â€Å"good policy. The banks are doing their corporate duty to our nation by continuing to accept the matricula as proof that these immigrants are U. S. citizens because in my opinion, if they United States government was against it, they would be stopping it! It is also in the banks best interest to do business with these immigrants. They saw a huge untapped opportunity in the market of increasing Hispanics and they decided to pursue it. It has ultimately affected their bottom line showing a substantial amount of profits through their business. I am going to make the assumption that by the banks offering their services to immigrants that the customers are doing more overall good than bad and that there is an extremely low number of customers who are actually using this money to fund drug cartels or to transfer money to terrorist funds and here is why. The profit of banks relies a lot on trust. Banks need to trust the customer that they will pay them back. As mentioned in the article it says that when customer wanted banking services they would often go and sit down to with a banker to go through their products. I believe that this face to face interaction weeds out many of the â€Å"terrorists† and â€Å"drug smugglers† of the group. Also, I believe that the banks are truly helping people that are in need. These are immigrants who are coming to America and looking for a better way of life than what they had before. They may have left their family and friends to get away from a terrible way of life in their for eign country. The banks are helping these people understand how to manage their money, and they are giving them the ability to send some of the money they are making back to their foreign country to help support their family or whoever they so please. They no longer have to sit or hide bundles of cash leaving them bigger targets for robbery. Again, making the assumption that the banks customers are doing more harm than good, I believe that this benefits our society as a whole. In society, we want all of our people to have a fair chance and that is exactly what the banks and the United States are doing. They are giving the 45-55% of Hispanics who’ve never had a banking relationship a fair chance at success. Where my biggest issue lies in this case is in the hypocrisy of the United States. I believe with the matricula being accepted by many states and sheriffs throughout the United States that it certainly acceptable for U. S. Citizen to accept it as valid identification as well, being that they are looking to make money and that they are certainly helping out a Hispanic population. However, the United States should make a stand on either side of this issue, because you most certainly can’t have both. You can’t set up border patrol to keep Mexicans out than say that a card issued by the Mexican government proves that they are a United States citizen and let them stay in our country. Although they are not forced to pay taxes, and we as American are financially hurt because we are forced to pay more taxes on them, this small financial loss to our society is outweighed by what should be our willingness to help people that are in need. Now it is probably true that a few of these banks may be allowing the certain aid of drug cartels or other illegal acts. But who says that if I go to a bank and apply for a loan that they know that I won’t use that money to buy an immense amount of drugs? I work for a bank and we recently had a transaction where we thought we had a legitimate customer and we ended up funding the mob based out of Chicago. It is the banks duty to offer services to those in need if they believe that they are a valid customer and are meeting their compliance guidelines which U. S. Citizen has. The United States should not accept this card as valid identification because for the easy answer, it is not valid identification. We have conflicting agencies, one being the FBI saying that the card is not valid and sheriff offices saying that it is. But as long as the United States is accepting it as valid I. D. than the banks should too because they are certainly doing more good than harm by offering their banking services to these immigrants. The United States needs to eliminate this card and come up with a better way and system to make the illegal immigrants citizens of our beautiful country. Right now American are seeing a portion of our taxes going to illegal immigrants so that their kids can go to a public school and that we can provide them with health care. This is not beneficial to our society as a whole and that I believe that if they want to come in to our country that they should have the same duties as Americans to pay taxes and to continue to better this country. In conclusion I believe that U. S. Citizen Bank is doing the right thing by allowing the Mexican immigrants a chance at banking service even with the acceptance of the illegitimate source of identification in the matricula consular card. It is benefitting not only the bank but it is helping out those that are in need of these services and giving them a chance to help their friends and family at home that may be struggling. The basis of this decision to continue is solely because of the United States government acceptance of the card and not because the card is valid. How to cite U.S. Bank Remitance Program Case Essay, Essays

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Movie Specials Effects free essay sample

This paper compares the special effects of Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones and Spiderman both released in summer 2002. A comparison of two films, Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones and Spiderman with particular emphasis on contrasting the special effects used in these movies. The author looks at the ideology of a special effects team and the systemic approach to creativity for the imagination as the big screen comes to life in the minds of the audience. Within the movie world there will always be a need for sensational special effects, gone are the days when a simple camera trick and small explosion would suffice for the action scenes, now as movies become digitalized and edited upon computers there is little a special effects team cannot do to a character or scene. Within the present arena of movie making two major films stand out as having the most complex and memorable special effects are Spiderman and the latest Star Wars visiting in the series, the Attack of the Clones. We will write a custom essay sample on Movie Specials Effects or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Original piece of great business writing

Original piece of great business writing Business writing Business Writing Guidelines Below, there are helpful business writing guidelines. You may stick to them when producing your papers. However, remember that all your assignments have to be completed in accordance with the teacher’s instructions. In case some questions arise, you should contact to get valuable assistance with preparing your work in the business area. Nowadays, business sector grows very fast. New companies are created every day. In order to run business successfully, you should possess remarkable managerial, writing, and organizational skills. The thing is that it is essential to establish strong connection between the departments of the company, business partners, etc. When working in this field, you will need to send e-mails to colleagues, write financial reports, and other documents. As it is seen, writing takes a very important place in conducting business. Therefore, you should know how to organize documentation in the right way. For this reason, you should follow these useful business writing tips: When producing some pieces on economic topics, you should know who the addressee is. Thus, you will understand what writing style should be applied to different types of documents. It is necessary to identify clearly the aim of producing particular texts. Present accurate data only. Provide information concisely. It is better to use verbs in the active voice than in the passive. Do not use a lot of personal pronouns such as â€Å"you, I, we.† Reference Style You do want to produce an effective business writing piece, don’t you? Thus, you should pay attention to the format. The majority of papers in Business are formatted in APA. According to it, you need to use an author-date principle for in-text citations (for example, Adams, 1997). It is also recommended not to make endnotes and footnotes. By the way, if you need expert help with formatting your work, feel free to use our superior services. Types of Papers What is business writing? A lot of students want to get a clear answer to this question to be able to complete their assignments appropriately. There are different types of business works. They are: Memoranda These are short pieces of writing that provide general information inside the company. They should be organized in a particular business writing format. If writing such a paper is one of your college assignments, you should know that it can be produced in the informal style. Nevertheless, you should know who will read your memorandum. Thus, you will manage to provide enough useful information about its key issue. If you cannot write memos on your own, turn to our experts for assistance. Business Letters This is one of the means of business communication. They are written in formal style. By the way, you can use such papers to apply for a job. Business letters have a common format. Standard elements of a business letter are date, address, greeting, body, and closing part. They should be written clearly, so that readers can understand the message properly. If you want to show the addressee that you are aware of the subject, you may use specific terms. If you consider this assignment very complicated, you should address us. We know how to write a business letter properly. Case Analysis This is one of the common types of business writing. Students of business or economic courses are often assigned to produce it. When writing it, you need to apply knowledge gained during classes. It will help you examine the matter thoroughly. You should start with presenting the case. Then, you need to offer suitable solutions to the discussed problem. Business Plan It is made to help companies expand and provide its services appropriately. They are also used to obtain additional funding. By the way, students often get such business assignments. Note that it is essential to set the purpose of writing clearly when making business plans. If any difficulties occur, get in touch with us without hesitation. Business Proposal This piece of business writing presents effective solutions to the addressed problems. In order to write it properly, you should identify the problem and analyze it in detail. Proposals can be of two types: unsolicited and solicited. The former is produced to offer cooperation to other companies. The latter is written when a firm wants to use the services of other agencies.

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Currency Act of 1764

The Currency Act of 1764 The Currency Act of 1764 was the second and most impactful of two laws passed by the British government during the reign of King George III that attempted to take total control of the monetary systems of all 13 colonies of British America. Passed by Parliament on September 1, 1764, the act extended the restrictions of the Currency Act of 1751 to all 13 of the American British colonies. It eased the earlier Currency Act’s prohibition against printing of new paper bills, but it did prevent the colonies from repaying future debts with paper bills. Parliament had always envisioned that its American colonies should use a monetary system similar, if not identical, to the British system of â€Å"hard currency† based on the pound sterling. Feeling that it would be too hard for it to regulate colonial paper money, Parliament chose to simply declare it worthless instead. The colonies felt devastated by this and protested angrily against the act. Already suffering a deep trade deficit with Great Britain, colonial merchants feared the lack of their own hard capital would make the situation even more desperate. The Currency Act exacerbated tensions between the colonies and Great Britain and is considered to be one of the many grievances that led to the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence. Economic Problems in the Colonies Having expended almost all of their monetary resources buying expensive imported goods, the early colonies struggled to keep money in circulation. Lacking a form of exchange that did not suffer from depreciation, the colonists depended largely on three forms of currency: Money in the form of locally-produced commodities, like tobacco, used as a means of exchange.Paper money in the form of a bill of exchange or a banknote backed by the value of land owned by an individual.â€Å"Specie† or gold or silver money. As international economic factors caused the availability of specie in the colonies to decrease, many colonists turned to bartering - trading goods or services between two or more parties without the use of money. When bartering proved too limited, the colonists turned to using commodities - mainly tobacco - as money.  However, only poorer quality tobacco ended up being circulated among the colonists, with the higher quality leaves were exported for greater profit. In the face of growing colonial debts, the commodity system soon proved ineffective. Massachusetts became the first colony to issue paper money in 1690, and by 1715, ten of the 13 colonies were issuing their own currency. But the colonies’ money woes were far from over. As the amount of gold and silver needed to back them began to dwindle, so did the actual value of the paper bills. By 1740, for example, a Rhode Island bill of exchange was worth less than 4% of its face value. Worse yet, this rate of the actual value of paper money varied from colony-to-colony. With the amount of printed money growing faster than the overall economy, hyperinflation quickly reduced the buying power of the colonial currency. Forced to accept the depreciated colonial currency as a repayment of debts, British merchants lobbied Parliament to enact the Currency Acts of 1751 and 1764. The Currency Act of 1751 The first Currency Act banned only the New England colonies from printing paper money and from opening new public banks. These colonies had issued paper money mainly to repay their debts to for British and French military protection during the French and Indian Wars. However, years of depreciation had caused the New England colonies’ â€Å"bills of credit† to be worth far less than the silver-backed British pound. Being forced to accept the heavily depreciated New England bills of credit as payment of colonial debts was particularly harmful to British merchants. While the Currency Act of 1751 allowed the New England colonies to continue using their existing bills to be used to pay public debts, like British taxes, it prohibited them from using the bills to pay private debts, such as those to merchants. The Currency Act of 1764 The Currency Act of 1764 extended the restrictions of the Currency Act of 1751 to all 13 of the American British colonies. While it eased the earlier Act’s prohibition against of the printing of new paper bills, it did forbid the colonies from using any future bills for payment of all public and private debts. As a result, the only way the colonies could repay their debts to Britain was with gold or silver. As their supplies of gold and silver rapidly dwindled, this policy created severe financial hardships for the colonies. For the next nine years, English colonial agents in London, including no less than Benjamin Franklin, lobbied Parliament to repeal the Currency Act. Point Made, England Backs Down In 1770, the New York colony informed Parliament that difficulties caused by the Currency Act would prevent it from being able to pay for housing British troops as required by the also unpopular Quartering Act of 1765.  One of the so-called â€Å"Intolerable Acts,† the Quartering  Act forced the colonies to house British soldiers in barracks provided by the colonies. Faced with that expensive possibility, Parliament authorized the New York colony to issues  £120,000 in paper bills for the payment of public, but not private debts. In 1773, Parliament amended the Currency Act of 1764 to allow all of the colonies to issue paper money for the payment of public debts - especially those owed to the British Crown. In the end, while the colonies had reclaimed at least a limited right to issue paper money, Parliament had reinforced its authority over its colonial governments. Legacy of the Currency Acts While both sides managed to temporarily move on from the Currency Acts, they contributed substantially to the growing tensions between the colonists and Britain. When the First Continental Congress issued a Declaration of Rights in 1774, delegates included the Currency Act of 1764 as one of the seven British Acts labeled as â€Å"subversive of American rights.† An Excerpt From the Currency Act of 1764 WHEREAS great quantities of paper bills of credit have been created and issued in his Majestys colonies or plantations in America, by virtue of acts, orders, resolutions, or votes of assembly, making and declaring such bills of credit to be legal tender in payment of money: and whereas such bills of credit have greatly depreciated in their value, by means whereof debts have been discharged with a much less value than was contracted for, to the great discouragement and prejudice of the trade and commerce of his Majestys subjects, by occasioning confusion in dealings, and lessening credit in the said colonies or plantations: for remedy whereof, may it please your most excellent Majesty, that it may be enacted; and be it enacted by the Kings most excellent majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, That from and after the first day of September, one thousand seven h undred and sixty four, no act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly, in any of his Majestys colonies or plantations in America, shall be made, for creating or issuing any paper bills, or bills of credit of any kind or denomination whatsoever, declaring such paper bills, or bills of credit, to be legal tender in payment of any bargains, contracts, debts, dues, or demands whatsoever; and every clause or provision which shall hereafter be inserted in any act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly, contrary to this act, shall be null and void.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Diabetes and the african-american population Essay

Diabetes and the african-american population - Essay Example Moreover, diabetes is also associated with the development of nephropathy with potential renal failure, autonomic dysfunction, and foot ulcers. Thirst, polyuria, blurring of vision, and weight loss are the characteristic clinical presentation of diabetes. Diabetes can lead to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma. Individuals with diabetes are often asymptomatic and some patients experience mild symptoms. For many centuries, there has been an awareness of different types of diabetes with varying severity. At the beginning of the 20th century, the possibility that there are two distinct types of diabetes emerged. The two types of diabetes are Type 1 diabetes (beta-cell destruction), which is an idiopathic and autoimmune disease, and Type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by insulin resistance and insulin hyposecretion (Holt, 2010). Type 1 diabetes occurs as a result of beta-cell destruction and mild insulin resistance. Insulin is required for survival after the patient survives the initial stages of the disease. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes is the dominant form of the disease around the world (T. Metcalf & G. Metcalf, 2008). Diabetes is particularly quite prevalent in the United States of America. According to the 2000 US Census, there are 37.4 million African American individuals in America which constitute approximately 12.3% of the total population. In African American children, the rates of Type 1 diabetes are lower compared to American children. The African American population has an incidence rate of 5 to 8 per 100,000 per annum. On the other hand, the incidence rate of diabetes in white population is 14 to 17 per 100,000 per year. (Joslin & Kahn, 2006).The different proportions of racial admixture, particularly with the white populations, might be the reason for the distinct incidence rates among the black population. A significant role is played by genetic